Water Heaters: A Brooklyn Plumber's Guide From CID Plumbing

In this article, our Brooklyn plumbing team dives deep into one of the most essential household appliances: the hot water heater. Hot water heaters provide us with those comforting hot showers and aid in countless household tasks. But, like any appliance, it’s crucial to understand its intricacies. A misstep in installation or a slight oversight in maintenance can lead to significant problems, sometimes even posing risks to your home’s safety. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll delve deep into the world of hot water heaters, demystifying their components, functions, and the signs that something might be amiss. And remember, if you ever find yourself in a bind or just need some expert advice, we’re just a call away at (570) 656-6261. You can also book online from our website’s dropdown menu or by clicking here.


Introduction to Hot Water Heaters

Cartoon of three types of hot water heaters next to one another in Brooklyn
What is a Hot Water Heater?

A hot water heater is a household appliance designed to heat and store water for domestic use. Think about those steamy showers, the hot water you use to wash dishes, or the warm water you need for laundry. All of that is made possible because of your hot water heater.


The hot water heater takes in cold water, heats it up using a specific energy source (like electricity or gas), and then stores this heated water in a tank or routes it directly to where you need it. When you turn on a hot water tap in your home, water from this system is delivered to you. The magic behind this process is a combination of heating elements or burners, thermostats, and safety devices working in harmony.


While the concept sounds simple, the mechanics and technology behind modern hot water heaters are quite advanced, ensuring that you get a consistent supply of hot water whenever you need it, without wasting energy.


In the upcoming sections, we’ll dive deeper into the different types of hot water heaters, their pros and cons, and some pro tips to keep them running efficiently. So, whether you’re a curious homeowner or someone facing a cold shower and wondering why, we’ve got you covered!

The Basic Functionality of Hot Water Heaters

The hot water heater’s primary function is simple: to heat water and maintain it at a set temperature until it’s needed. Whether you’re turning on the shower, starting a load of laundry, or simply washing your hands, the hot water heater ensures that you have a steady supply of warm water at your disposal.


The process begins when cold water enters the tank (for tank-based systems) or the unit (for tankless systems) through a dip tube. This water is then heated using either a gas burner or electric heating elements. In tank-based systems, the heated water rises to the top of the tank, ready to be distributed when a hot water tap is turned on. As the hot water is used, more cold water enters the tank to be heated, ensuring a continuous supply.


For tankless systems, the process is a bit different. Instead of storing hot water, these systems heat the water on-demand. When a hot water tap is turned on, cold water travels through the unit, where it’s rapidly heated by a heat exchanger before being sent to the tap.


Safety mechanisms are also in place to ensure smooth operation. For instance, a thermostat monitors the water temperature, turning the heating elements or gas burner on or off to maintain the desired temperature. Additionally, a pressure relief valve releases any excess pressure that might build up in the system, preventing potential damage or hazards.


In essence, hot water heaters are all about convenience and comfort, ensuring that Brooklyn homes have a reliable source of hot water whenever it’s needed.

Importance of Regular Maintenance and Inspection

Hot water heaters, like any other household appliance, require regular attention to operate at their best. But unlike some other appliances, the stakes are higher with water heaters. A small oversight can lead to inefficiencies, higher energy bills, or even potential hazards. That’s why regular maintenance and inspection are not just recommended; they’re essential.


  1. Safety First: Water heaters operate under pressure and deal with high temperatures. A malfunctioning pressure relief valve or a thermostat that doesn’t regulate temperature properly can turn your water heater into a potential hazard. Additionally, proper ventilation is crucial to ensure carbon monoxide does not accumulate in your home which poses severe health hazards (e.g., carbon monoxide poisoning). Regular inspections ensure that safety mechanisms are functioning as they should.

  2. Efficiency and Longevity: Sediment can build up at the bottom of tank-based water heaters over time. This sediment layer forces the heater to work harder, consuming more energy and leading to higher bills. Flushing the tank periodically prevents sediment buildup, ensuring efficient operation and extending the lifespan of the unit.

  3. Preventing Unexpected Breakdowns: There’s nothing worse than starting your day with a cold shower because your water heater decided to take a day off. Regular check-ups can identify potential issues before they become major problems, ensuring a consistent supply of hot water.

  4. Water Quality: Over time, the inner walls of a tank can corrode, leading to rusty water or a metallic taste. Anode rods in the tank help prevent this corrosion, but they degrade over time and need replacement. Regular inspections can catch this early, ensuring the water from your heater is clean and free from contaminants.

  5. Cost Savings: While there’s an upfront cost to regular maintenance, the long-term savings are undeniable. A well-maintained water heater operates efficiently, uses less energy, and lasts longer, reducing replacement costs and unexpected repair bills.

  6. Peace of Mind: Knowing that a professional has inspected and maintained your water heater provides peace of mind. It’s one less thing to worry about, especially during those chilly Brooklyn winters when a hot shower is more than just a luxury; it’s a necessity.


In short, regular maintenance and inspection of your hot water heater are small investments that pay off in safety, efficiency, longevity, and overall peace of mind.

Different Types of Hot Water Heaters

When it comes to warming up that H2O, not all hot water heaters are created equal. Depending on your needs, space, and energy preferences, one type might be a better fit for your Brooklyn home than another. Let’s break down the most common types:


Tankless (On-Demand) Water Heaters:

  • How They Work: Instead of storing water in a tank and keeping it heated, tankless water heaters heat water directly as it flows through the unit. When you turn on the hot tap, cold water travels through a pipe into the unit, where it’s heated by an electric element or gas burner.
  • Best For: Homes with limited space, those looking for energy efficiency, or households that don’t need to run multiple hot water tasks simultaneously.


Storage (Tank) Water Heaters:

  • How They Work: The most common type in homes, these heaters have a reservoir that stores and heats water. The tank keeps a supply of hot water ready for use, releasing it when a hot water tap is turned on.
  • Best For: Larger households or places where multiple hot water tasks might be happening at once (like showering while running the dishwasher).


Heat Pump (Hybrid) Water Heaters:

  • How They Work: Instead of generating heat directly, they move heat from one place to another using electricity. It’s like a refrigerator but in reverse. They can be standalone units or can work in tandem with a storage water heater.
  • Best For: Homes in areas with moderate heating and cooling needs, looking for an energy-efficient option.


Condensing Water Heaters:

  • How They Work: Ideal for homes with natural gas, these heaters capture the escaping gas fumes, condense them, and use the heat to warm the water. They function similarly to storage water heaters but are more energy-efficient.
  • Best For: Larger homes with a natural gas supply, looking to capitalize on energy efficiency.


Each type of water heater has its unique set of advantages, depending on the specific needs of your household. Whether you’re a solo dweller in a cozy Brooklyn apartment or part of a bustling family in a brownstone, there’s a hot water heater out there tailored for you.

Pros and Cons of Each Type

Navigating the world of water heaters can feel a bit like choosing a bagel flavor in a Brooklyn bakery—so many options, each with its unique twist. While some folks swear by the classic plain bagel (or traditional storage water heater), others might be tempted by the newer, trendier options on the menu (hello, tankless!). But as with any choice, it’s essential to understand the benefits and drawbacks of each. Let’s dive into the pros and cons of different water heater types to help you make an informed decision for your home.

Cartoon of a Park Slope plumber looking at different water heater styles to make a recommendation to a home owner
Tankless: Efficiency vs. Initial Cost


  1. Instant Gratification: As their name suggests, tankless water heaters provide hot water on-demand. No more waiting around for the tank to heat up; it’s like having a personal barista for your shower – your water, just the way you like it, pronto!

  2. Space Savers: Without a bulky tank, these units are compact and can be mounted on walls, freeing up valuable floor space. Perfect for those Brooklyn apartments where every square foot counts.

  3. Energy Efficiency: By only heating water when you need it, tankless units can be 24%–34% more energy-efficient for homes that use 41 gallons or less of hot water daily. That’s some serious energy (and bill) savings!

  4. Longer Lifespan: While traditional water heaters last about 10-15 years, tankless versions can last up to 20 years with proper maintenance. That’s almost old enough to remember when the Brooklyn Bridge was toll-free!

  5. Endless Hot Water: As long as it’s within its capacity, a tankless water heater can provide an endless stream of hot water. Marathon shower, anyone?



  1. Upfront Costs: The initial investment for a tankless water heater can be higher than traditional units. But think of it as buying a designer bag – it might be pricier, but it lasts longer and looks sleeker.

  2. Limited Output: If you’re dreaming of running the dishwasher, doing laundry, and showering simultaneously, you might be pushing the limits of a single tankless unit. They can typically handle 2-3 tasks at once, but after that, you might be pushing your luck.

  3. Retrofitting Challenges: If you’re switching from a traditional to a tankless system, there might be some initial setup hurdles, like ensuring you have the right type of gas line or enough electrical capacity.

  4. Inconsistent Temperatures: Sometimes, if another tap is turned on or if the flow is too low, the temperature can fluctuate. It’s like the water’s way of saying, “Hey, I’m trying my best here!”

  5. Maintenance: While they last longer, tankless systems might require annual maintenance to keep them running smoothly, especially in areas with hard water.

Storage: Reliability vs. Space Consumption


  1. Tried and True: Storage water heaters have been around for a long time. They’re a proven technology that many plumbers and homeowners are familiar with.

  2. Lower Initial Cost: Generally, they’re less expensive to purchase and install than their tankless counterparts. It’s like opting for a classic bagel instead of the artisanal, gluten-free, unicorn-flavored one.

  3. Steady Hot Water Supply: The tank stores a reserve of hot water, ensuring that you have access to it even during peak times.

  4. Simpler Installation: Especially if you’re replacing an old unit with a similar new one, the process can be straightforward. No need to reinvent the plumbing wheel.

  5. Power Outage Perk: If there’s a power outage, you might still have some hot water left in the tank, at least for a short while.



  1. Size Matters: These tanks can be bulky. If space is at a premium in your Brooklyn home, it might feel like you’ve added another roommate.

  2. Standby Heat Loss: Because the water is continuously heated in the tank, you can experience some energy loss, even when you’re not using any hot water.

  3. Limited Supply: Once you’ve used up the hot water in the tank, you’ll have to wait for it to refill and reheat. No one likes a cold shower surprise.

  4. Shorter Lifespan: Typically, storage water heaters last about 10-15 years, which is shorter than most tankless models.

  5. Potential for Big Leaks: If a storage water heater fails, it can result in a significant amount of water leakage, especially if it’s not spotted quickly.

Heat Pump: Energy Savings vs. Upfront Cost


  1. Energy Efficiency: Heat pump water heaters, often referred to as hybrid water heaters, use electricity to move heat from the air or ground to heat the water, making them incredibly energy efficient. This method can be up to three times more energy-efficient than traditional electric water heaters.
  2. Cost Savings: While the initial cost might be higher, the energy savings over time can lead to lower monthly utility bills. Over its lifespan, a heat pump water heater can save homeowners hundreds, if not thousands, of dollars.
  3. Eco-Friendly: By relying on existing heat in the air or ground, heat pump water heaters have a smaller carbon footprint compared to their traditional counterparts.
  4. Operational Modes: Many hybrid models come with multiple operational modes, allowing homeowners to switch between efficiency modes depending on their hot water needs.



  1. Upfront Cost: Heat pump water heaters come with a higher initial price tag compared to traditional storage water heaters. The advanced technology and features can make them more expensive to purchase.
  2. Installation Requirements: These water heaters require specific conditions for optimal operation. They need space (typically around 1,000 cubic feet) and are best suited for places where the temperature remains between 40°F and 90°F.
  3. Maintenance: While all water heaters require maintenance, heat pump models might need more frequent check-ups to ensure all components, especially the air filter, are in good working condition.
  4. Size: Heat pump water heaters tend to be larger than traditional models, which might be a consideration if space is a concern.
Condensing: Efficiency vs. Complexity


  1. High Efficiency: Condensing water heaters are designed to capture and use the heat from the exhaust gases, which would typically be vented out. This process allows them to achieve efficiency levels of over 90%, making them one of the most energy-efficient options available.
  2. Cost Savings: With their high efficiency, homeowners can expect to see a reduction in their monthly utility bills. Over time, these savings can offset the initial investment.
  3. Eco-Friendly: By utilizing the heat from exhaust gases, condensing water heaters reduce waste and have a lower carbon footprint.
  4. Capacity: These heaters are available in both tank and tankless models, offering flexibility in terms of capacity and instantaneous hot water supply.



  1. Upfront Cost: The advanced technology in condensing water heaters can make them more expensive initially than traditional models.
  2. Complexity: The technology and design of condensing water heaters are more intricate, which can lead to potential issues if not maintained properly.
  3. Venting Requirements: Due to the condensation process, these heaters require special venting systems, often made of stainless steel or PVC, which can add to the installation cost.
  4. Maintenance: The condensation process can produce slightly acidic water, which, if not drained properly, can lead to corrosion or other issues over time.

Fuel Source Selection: Gas vs. Electric Water Heaters

Cartoon of an electric and gas powered storage water heater

When it comes to heating water for our homes, the source of the heat is a crucial decision. In the heart of Brooklyn, where every decision can impact both your wallet and your comfort, understanding the differences between gas and electric water heaters is essential. Let’s break down the pros and cons of each:

Gas Water Heaters


  1. Speed: Gas water heaters typically heat water faster than electric models. This means you’re less likely to run out of hot water during those morning rush hours.
  2. Cost-Effective Operation: Natural gas is often less expensive than electricity, making the operational costs of gas water heaters generally lower over time.
  3. Power Outages: Gas water heaters can still operate during power outages, ensuring you have hot water when you need it.



  1. Initial Cost: Gas models can be more expensive upfront than their electric counterparts.
  2. Installation: They require proper venting to expel combustion gases, which can complicate and increase the cost of installation.
  3. Maintenance: Gas water heaters might need more regular maintenance to ensure safe and efficient operation.
Electric Water Heaters:


  1. Simplicity: Electric models are generally easier and less expensive to install, with no need for venting.
  2. Safety: Without the need for gas, there’s no risk of gas leaks.
  3. Size and Placement Flexibility: Electric water heaters come in various sizes, including small units that can be installed directly at the point of use.



  1. Operational Costs: Electricity can be more expensive than natural gas, leading to higher monthly utility bills.
  2. Heating Speed: Electric models might heat water more slowly than gas models.
  3. Power Dependency: In the event of a power outage, electric water heaters won’t function.
Which Water Heaters Use Which Fuel Source

When it comes to heating water in your home, the fuel source plays a pivotal role in determining efficiency, cost, and installation requirements. Let’s break down which types of water heaters can use gas and which can run on electricity:


1. Tankless (On-Demand) Water Heaters: Both gas and electric models are available. Gas-powered versions typically heat water faster and can handle larger demands, making them suitable for bigger households. Electric models, on the other hand, are often more compact and easier to install.

2. Storage (Tank) Water Heaters: These traditional units also come in both gas and electric variants. Gas models usually have a faster recovery rate, meaning they can heat a full tank of water quicker than their electric counterparts. Electric tank water heaters are generally simpler in design and might have a longer lifespan due to fewer parts that can wear out.

3. Heat Pump (Hybrid) Water Heaters: These are primarily electric. They use electricity to move heat from the air or ground to heat the water, making them incredibly energy-efficient.

4. Condensing Water Heaters: These are typically gas-powered. They capture the heat from the exhaust gases and use it to heat the water, which makes them more efficient than traditional gas models.

Determining the Right Size and Style for Your Needs

Choosing the right water heater isn’t just about deciding between gas or electric, tankless or tank. It’s also about ensuring that the heater you select meets the specific demands of your household. After all, there’s nothing worse than stepping into a cold shower on a chilly Brooklyn morning because your water heater is undersized. Let’s dive into the factors you should consider to make an informed decision:

Factors to Consider: Household Size, Usage Patterns, and Space

1. Household Size: The number of people in your home directly impacts the amount of hot water you’ll need. A couple living in a cozy apartment will have different hot water needs than a family of five. Generally, the more people in the household, the larger the water heater capacity you’ll need.

2. Usage Patterns: Think about when and how you use hot water. Do multiple family members shower simultaneously in the morning? Do you often run the dishwasher and washing machine at the same time? High simultaneous demand might necessitate a larger tank or a high-capacity tankless model. On the other hand, if your usage is more staggered, you might get by with a smaller unit.

3. Space: Brooklyn living often means making the most of limited space. If you’re tight on room, a compact tankless water heater might be the way to go, as it can be wall-mounted and doesn’t require a large footprint. However, if you have a spacious utility area, a storage tank water heater could be a viable option.

4. Energy Efficiency Ratings: While not directly related to size, it’s essential to consider the energy efficiency of any water heater you’re considering. Look for models with a high Energy Factor (EF) rating. A higher EF indicates a more efficient unit, which can save you money in the long run.


Selecting the right size and style of water heater is a balancing act. You’ll need to weigh your household’s hot water demands against available space and your budget. But with a bit of research and consideration, you can ensure that you’ll always have a hot shower waiting for you, even on the coldest of Brooklyn mornings.

Energy Efficiency Ratings and What They Mean

In the world of appliances, not all units are created equal, especially when it comes to energy efficiency. When selecting a water heater for your home, understanding energy efficiency ratings can be a game-changer in terms of long-term savings and environmental impact. Let’s demystify these ratings:


1. Energy Factor (EF): This is a measure used specifically for water heaters. It represents the efficiency with which the unit converts its fuel into heat and how much heat is lost during storage. A higher EF indicates a more efficient water heater. For instance, a gas water heater with an EF of 0.6 converts 60% of its fuel into heat, while the remaining 40% is lost.

2. Uniform Energy Factor (UEF): Introduced in 2017, the UEF is a more modern and comprehensive metric that replaced the EF. It categorizes water heaters into four different usage bins (small, low, medium, high) based on their hot water delivery capabilities. A higher UEF, like the EF, indicates a more efficient unit.

3. Energy Star Rating: You’ve probably seen this blue label on various appliances. Water heaters with the Energy Star label meet strict energy efficiency guidelines set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These units are typically 8-10% more efficient than standard models, translating to tangible savings on utility bills.

4. First Hour Rating (FHR): While not directly an efficiency rating, the FHR is crucial when sizing a water heater. It tells you how much hot water the heater can supply in the first hour of use. For larger households or those with peak hot water usage times, a higher FHR can be beneficial.


Energy efficiency ratings provide a clear picture of a water heater’s performance and potential savings. While a more efficient unit might have a higher upfront cost, the long-term savings on energy bills and the reduced environmental footprint often justify the investment. And remember, in a place like Brooklyn where every penny counts, investing in an efficient water heater can be a wise move for both your wallet and the planet.

Size and Design Considerations

When it comes to water heaters, size does matter. But it’s not just about the physical dimensions of the unit; it’s about ensuring that the heater can meet the hot water demands of your household without working overtime. Here’s a dive into the key considerations:


1. Capacity Needs: The size of your water heater should align with the daily hot water demands of your household. For tank water heaters, this is measured in gallons. A family of four, for instance, might require a 50-gallon tank, while a couple might only need a 30-gallon tank.

2. First Hour Rating (FHR): We touched on this earlier, but it’s worth reiterating. The FHR tells you how much hot water a heater can deliver in an hour. This is especially crucial during peak usage times, like morning showers or evening baths.

3. Physical Space: Especially in places like Brooklyn, where space can be at a premium, the physical dimensions of the water heater are crucial. Ensure you have enough space for installation, keeping in mind the need for proper ventilation if you’re going with a gas unit.

4. Tank vs. Tankless: While tank water heaters store and heat water in a reservoir, tankless units heat water on demand. This means tankless heaters can be much smaller in size, making them ideal for homes with limited space. However, they also need to be powerful enough to heat water instantaneously.

5. Future Needs: Are you planning on expanding your family? Maybe adding a bathroom or a larger bathtub? Consider potential changes in your hot water needs down the line. It’s often more cost-effective to invest in a slightly larger unit now than to replace an undersized one later.

6. Aesthetic Considerations: While functionality is paramount, design isn’t to be overlooked. Especially if your water heater will be visible (like in some apartment setups), you might want a unit that’s sleek and modern. Some newer models are designed with aesthetics in mind, blending seamlessly with other home appliances.

7. Height Versus Width: Tall, short, and low-boy storage tanks have different heights and widths to enable you to fit a water heater where you need it. Take these dimensions into consideration when selecting your space and also factor in any height you will lose if you are lifting your water heater off the ground which is helpful to prevent damage in areas prone to flooding.


Choosing the right size and design for your water heater is a balancing act between your current needs, future plans, and the space you have available. It’s not just about getting hot water; it’s about getting it efficiently, reliably, and in a way that fits seamlessly into your Brooklyn home.

Deep Dive into Each Type of Water Heater

Water heaters might seem straightforward, but beneath their exterior, there’s a world of complexity, innovation, and engineering. Each type of water heater comes with its own set of mechanics, benefits, and considerations. Whether you’re a curious homeowner or someone looking to make an informed decision about your next water heater purchase, it’s essential to understand the nuances of each type. In this section, we’ll delve into the inner workings of various water heaters, from the on-demand magic of tankless units to the efficiency of condensing heaters. We’ll explore how they operate, their key components, common issues you might encounter, and the specific requirements for installing them in NYC. So, grab your metaphorical wrench and flashlight, and let’s dive in!

Cartoon of a plumber diving into a pool on a Brooklyn roof
Tankless Water Heaters
Tankless Water Heaters: How They Work

Tankless water heaters, often referred to as “on-demand” or “instantaneous” water heaters, have a pretty futuristic feel to them. But how do they manage to provide hot water instantly without a storage tank? Let’s break it down.


When you turn on a hot water tap in your home, cold water travels through a pipe and into the tankless water heater unit. Here, either an electric element or a gas burner heats the water on-the-fly. This means the water is heated instantly as it flows through the unit, rather than being stored in a tank and kept hot. The result? A continuous supply of hot water, right when you need it.


One of the standout features of tankless systems is that they don’t have the energy losses associated with storage water heaters. Traditional tank heaters constantly work to keep a large volume of water heated, even when you’re not using it. In contrast, tankless heaters only use energy when there’s a demand for hot water, making them more energy-efficient.


However, it’s worth noting that the flow rate of a tankless water heater might be limited. While they provide endless hot water, they can only produce so much at a time. This means that if multiple taps or appliances are running simultaneously, the water might not be as hot as desired. But for many households, especially in Brooklyn where space is at a premium, the benefits of a compact, efficient system often outweigh this limitation.


In the next sections, we’ll delve deeper into the components that make these heaters tick, common issues you might face, and what you need to know if you’re considering installing one in NYC.

Tankless Water Heaters: Key Components and Unique Attributes

Tankless water heaters might seem like magic boxes that instantly produce hot water, but there’s some serious engineering inside. Let’s pull back the curtain and take a look at the main components and standout features of these units.


  1. Heat Exchanger: This is the heart of a tankless water heater. When cold water enters the unit, it passes through the heat exchanger, which rapidly heats the water to the desired temperature. Typically made of high-quality metals like copper or stainless steel, the heat exchanger is designed to transfer heat efficiently and resist corrosion.

  2. Burners or Electric Coils: Depending on whether you have a gas or electric model, your tankless heater will use either burners or electric coils to produce the heat that’s transferred to the water. Gas models tend to heat water more quickly, but electric models are often easier to install.

  3. Flow Sensor: This component detects when you turn on a hot water tap. Once it senses flow, it signals the unit to start heating water.

  4. Control Panel: Modern tankless water heaters come with digital control panels that allow you to adjust the temperature of the water. Some even have advanced features like diagnostics or efficiency modes.

  5. Venting System (for gas models): Gas tankless water heaters produce exhaust gases that need to be vented outside. This can be done through traditional metal vents or more modern PVC vents, depending on the model.


Unique Attributes:

  • Compact Size: One of the standout features of tankless water heaters is their compact size. Without a bulky tank, these units can be installed in tight spaces, making them ideal for apartments and homes where space is a premium.

  • Endless Hot Water: As long as there’s a supply of cold water and energy (gas or electric), a tankless water heater can produce hot water indefinitely. No more scheduling showers around the water heater’s capacity!

  • Energy Efficiency: Without a tank to constantly keep heated, tankless water heaters tend to be more energy-efficient than their traditional counterparts. This can lead to savings on your energy bill over time.

  • Longer Lifespan: With proper maintenance, tankless water heaters often have a longer lifespan compared to tank models. It’s not uncommon for them to last 20 years or more.


In the upcoming sections, we’ll discuss some common issues you might encounter with tankless systems and the specific requirements for installing one in NYC.

Tankless Water Heaters: Common Issues and Fixes

While tankless water heaters are a marvel of modern plumbing, they aren’t without their quirks. Here are some common issues owners might face and how to address them:


  1. Cold Water Sandwich: This phenomenon occurs when a burst of cold water comes out after the initial hot water, followed by hot water again. It’s usually due to turning the faucet on and off in quick succession.

    • Fix: Wait a few seconds after turning off the hot water before turning it on again. If the issue persists, consult with a plumber.
  2. Mineral Build-Up: In areas with hard water, mineral deposits can accumulate in the heat exchanger, reducing efficiency and potentially causing damage.

    • Fix: Regularly descale your tankless water heater, especially if you have hard water. Consider installing a water softener to reduce mineral content.
  3. Fluctuating Temperatures: If the water temperature isn’t consistent, it might be due to a malfunctioning flow sensor or a dirty heat exchanger.

    • Fix: Clean the heat exchanger and check the flow sensor. If the problem persists, it might be time to call in a professional.
  4. System Overload: If you’re demanding more hot water than the unit can supply (like running multiple showers and appliances at once), it might struggle to keep up.

    • Fix: Be mindful of how many appliances and fixtures are using hot water simultaneously. If this is a frequent issue, consider upgrading to a unit with a higher flow rate.
  5. Ignition or Flame Failure (for gas models): If the unit isn’t igniting or the flame goes out unexpectedly, it could be due to a variety of issues, from gas supply problems to faulty sensors.

    • Fix: Check the gas supply and ensure it’s turned on. Clean the unit’s air filter and check for obstructions in the venting system. If the problem continues, it’s best to consult a professional.
  6. Error Codes on the Display: Modern tankless water heaters come with diagnostic features that display error codes when something’s amiss.

    • Fix: Refer to the owner’s manual for the meaning of specific error codes. Some issues might be simple to fix, like a blocked filter, while others might require professional attention.


Remember, while some fixes can be DIY, it’s always a good idea to consult with a professional, especially when dealing with gas models or intricate components. Regular maintenance, like annual inspections, can also help prevent many of these issues from arising in the first place.

Storage Water Heaters
Storage Water Heaters: How They Work

Storage water heaters, often referred to as tank water heaters, are the most common type found in homes across the U.S., including our beloved Brooklyn. Their operation is straightforward, but let’s break it down for those who’ve never peeked inside their utility closet or basement with a curious eye.


  1. The Tank: At the heart of a storage water heater is, well, the tank. This tank typically holds between 30 to 50 gallons of water, though larger models are available for bigger households or commercial applications.

  2. Heating Element: Inside the tank, there’s either a gas burner (for gas models) or electric heating coils (for electric models). These elements heat the water to a temperature set on the thermostat, usually between 120°F to 140°F.

  3. Cold Water Inlet: Cold water enters the tank from the bottom via a dip tube. This ensures that the coldest water is near the heating element, promoting efficient heating.

  4. Hot Water Outlet: As water heats up, it rises to the top of the tank. When you turn on a hot water tap in your home, water is drawn from the top, ensuring you get the hottest water available.

  5. Thermostat: This device monitors the water temperature inside the tank. When the water temperature drops below the set point, the thermostat activates the heating element to warm the water back up.

  6. Pressure Relief Valve: Safety first! If the pressure inside the tank gets too high, this valve releases some of the excess, preventing potential explosions. It’s like a little guardian for your water heater.

  7. Drain Valve: Located near the bottom of the tank, this valve is used to empty the tank for maintenance or replacement. It’s also handy for flushing out sediment that may accumulate over time.

  8. Sacrificial Anode Rod: This might sound like something out of a sci-fi movie, but it’s a crucial component. Made of magnesium or aluminum, this rod attracts corrosive elements in the water, sacrificing itself to protect the tank’s inner lining. Hence the name!


In essence, storage water heaters are like big thermos bottles. They keep a large volume of water hot and ready for use, ensuring that a warm shower or bath is always just a twist of the faucet away. However, because they constantly heat water even when not in use, they can be less energy-efficient than some of the other types we’ll explore.

Storage Water Heaters: Key Components and Unique Attributes

Storage water heaters, while common, have a number of components that work in harmony to provide that comforting hot water we all cherish. Let’s dive into the key components and highlight some of the unique attributes that set storage water heaters apart from other types:


  1. The Tank: The defining feature of storage water heaters is the tank itself. Made of heavy-duty steel, it’s lined with a protective layer, usually porcelain enamel, to prevent corrosion. The tank’s insulation helps retain the heat, ensuring that the water remains hot for longer periods.

  2. Dip Tube: This tube allows cold water to flow into the tank and ensures it’s directed to the bottom, where it’s heated. Over time, the dip tube can degrade, which might lead to cooler-than-desired water.

  3. Sacrificial Anode Rod: One of the unsung heroes of the water heater world, this rod is designed to corrode in place of the tank. By periodically checking and replacing the anode rod, you can significantly extend the life of your water heater.

  4. Heating Mechanism: Depending on whether you have a gas or electric model, your storage water heater will either use a burner or heating coils to heat the water. Gas models typically have a venting system to expel combustion gases safely outside.

  5. Thermostat: This is the water heater’s “brain.” It constantly monitors the water temperature and signals the heating mechanism to kick in when the temperature drops below the set point.

  6. Pressure Relief Valve: A critical safety feature, this valve ensures that the pressure inside the tank doesn’t reach dangerous levels. If the pressure or temperature gets too high, the valve releases water to bring things back to safe levels.

  7. Drain Valve: Handy for maintenance, this valve allows you to drain the tank, which is especially useful for flushing out sediment or replacing the unit.


Unique Attributes:

  • Standby Heat Loss: Unlike tankless models, storage water heaters experience what’s known as “standby heat loss.” This means they’re constantly using energy to keep the stored water hot, even when you’re not using any hot water.

  • Lifespan: With proper maintenance, storage water heaters typically last between 10 to 15 years. It’s a good idea to keep an eye on its age and consider a replacement when it nears the end of its expected life to avoid unexpected breakdowns.

  • Capacity: One of the main considerations when choosing a storage water heater is its capacity. You’ll want to ensure it’s large enough to handle your household’s hot water needs, especially during peak times.

  • Recovery Rate: This refers to how quickly the water heater can heat water after the hot water has been depleted. A higher recovery rate means you’ll have hot water again more quickly.


While storage water heaters might seem simple on the surface, they’re a culmination of engineering and design that ensures you have hot water whenever you need it. Just remember, like all appliances, they thrive on a little TLC now and then.

Storage Water Heaters: Common Issues and Fixes

The storage water heater – while it’s a reliable workhorse, it’s not immune to issues. But don’t fret! Many of these problems have straightforward fixes. Let’s delve into some common challenges faced by homeowners and the solutions to get that hot water flowing again.


No Hot Water:

  • Potential Cause: If you have a gas heater, the pilot light might have gone out.

  • Fix: Relight the pilot following the manufacturer’s instructions. If it doesn’t stay lit, you might have a faulty thermocouple or pilot control valve.

  • Potential Cause: For electric heaters, the heating element might have failed.

  • Fix: Test the element and replace it if necessary. Remember to turn off the power before attempting any repairs!


Insufficient Hot Water:

  • Potential Cause: The thermostat might be set too low.

  • Fix: Adjust the thermostat to a higher setting. But be cautious; setting it too high can risk scalding.

  • Potential Cause: Sediment buildup at the bottom of the tank.

  • Fix: Drain the tank to remove sediment. This not only solves the problem but also extends the life of your heater.


Water is Too Hot:

  • Potential Cause: The thermostat is set too high.
  • Fix: Adjust the thermostat to a safer, lower setting.


Rusty or Smelly Water:

  • Potential Cause: Corrosion inside the tank or a failing sacrificial anode rod.
  • Fix: Replace the anode rod. If the tank itself is corroded, it might be time for a new water heater.


Loud Rumbling or Popping Noises:

  • Potential Cause: Again, sediment buildup. As water heats, it bubbles up through the sediment, causing the noise.
  • Fix: Drain the tank to get rid of the sediment.


Water Leaking from the Tank:

  • Potential Cause: A faulty temperature and pressure relief valve, or excessive pressure inside the tank.

  • Fix: Replace the valve. If the issue persists, consult with a plumber to check your home’s water pressure.

  • Potential Cause: Small amounts of water around the base might be due to condensation.

  • Fix: This is generally harmless and can be wiped away. However, if there’s a significant amount of water, it might indicate a slow leak, requiring professional attention.


Pilot Light Keeps Going Out:

  • Potential Cause: A faulty thermocouple or a draft blowing the pilot out.
  • Fix: Replace the thermocouple. If the issue is a draft, ensure there’s proper shielding around the pilot light.


Remember, while some fixes can be DIY, always prioritize safety. If you’re ever in doubt, it’s best to call in the pros. After all, we’re just a call away in Brooklyn at (570) 656-6261. And always turn off the power or gas supply before attempting any repairs!

Heat Pump Water Heaters
Heat Pump Water Heaters: How They Work

Heat pump water heaters might sound like they belong in a sci-fi movie, but they’re very much a part of our present-day plumbing landscape. Unlike traditional water heaters that generate heat directly, these devices move heat from one place to another. Think of them as the “relocators” of the heating world.


So, how does this magic happen?


  1. Absorbing Ambient Heat: At its core, a heat pump water heater has a component called a heat exchanger. This exchanger absorbs heat from the surrounding air. Yes, even if that air feels cool to you, it still contains some heat.

  2. Compressing the Heat: Once the heat is absorbed, it’s compressed. This compression process amplifies the heat, making it hotter. It’s like taking a small flame and turning it into a roaring fire.

  3. Transferring the Heat: This amplified heat is then transferred to the water in the tank. The water gets heated without any direct heating element or burner coming into play.

  4. Cool Bonus: As a side effect of pulling heat from the surrounding air, the area around the heat pump water heater gets cooled and dehumidified. So, in a way, it’s like getting a mini air conditioner as a bonus!

  5. Electric Backup: On days when the ambient heat isn’t enough (think of those chilly Brooklyn winter nights), heat pump water heaters have electric resistance heaters that kick in to ensure you get your hot shower without a hitch.

  6. Control Panel: Most heat pump water heaters come with a control panel that lets you choose different modes. For instance, you can opt for “Efficiency Mode” (using only the heat pump) or “Hybrid Mode” (using both the heat pump and electric backup).


In essence, heat pump water heaters are like the chameleons of the plumbing world. They adapt, they’re efficient, and they ensure you get that comforting hot water when you need it. And if you’re ever in doubt about how they’d fit into your Brooklyn home, just remember: they’re not just futuristic; they’re eco-friendly and cost-effective too.

Heat Pump Water Heaters: Key Components and Unique Attributes

Heat pump water heaters might seem like they’re from a galaxy far, far away, but once you break them down, they’re not so alien after all. Let’s take a tour of their inner workings:


  1. Heat Exchanger: This is the star player in the heat pump water heater lineup. It’s responsible for absorbing heat from the surrounding air. Think of it as a sponge, but instead of soaking up water, it soaks up heat.

  2. Compressor: Once our heat exchanger has gathered all that lovely warmth, the compressor steps in. It takes the absorbed heat and, well, compresses it. This process amplifies the heat, making it hot enough to warm up your water.

  3. Evaporator Coil: This coil circulates refrigerant, which helps absorb the heat from the ambient air. It’s like the backstage crew in a theater production, working diligently behind the scenes.

  4. Condenser Coil: After the heat is compressed, this coil helps transfer that heat to the water in the tank. It’s the bridge between the heat source and your future hot shower.

  5. Electric Resistance Heaters: These are the backup singers of the heat pump water heater world. On days when the main act (the heat pump) can’t quite hit those high notes, these electric heaters step in to ensure the performance goes on.

  6. Control Panel: This is the brain of the operation. It allows you to choose between different operating modes, adjust temperature settings, and even diagnose issues. It’s like the captain’s deck on a spaceship, giving you full control of your hot water destiny.


Unique Attributes:

  • Eco-Friendly: Heat pump water heaters are the tree-huggers of the water heating world. They use significantly less electricity than traditional electric water heaters, reducing your carbon footprint.

  • Cost-Efficient: While they might have a higher upfront cost, their operational costs are lower. Over time, they can save homeowners a pretty penny on their energy bills.

  • Space Cooling: Remember that cool bonus we talked about? As these heaters pull heat from the surrounding air, they inadvertently cool and dehumidify the space they’re in. It’s like getting a mini air conditioner without the added cost.

  • Versatility: They can operate in various modes, from full heat pump mode to hybrid mode, giving homeowners flexibility based on their needs.


In the grand tapestry of water heaters, heat pump variants stand out not just for their efficiency, but for their innovation. They’re a testament to how far we’ve come in our quest for sustainable living, even in the heart of Brooklyn.

Heat Pump Water Heaters: Common Issues and Fixes

Every superhero has its kryptonite, and heat pump water heaters are no exception. But don’t fret! With a little knowledge and some elbow grease (or a call to your friendly Brooklyn-based plumber), these issues can be resolved.


Not Heating Properly:

  • Issue: The water isn’t as hot as it should be, or there’s no hot water at all.
  • Possible Causes: The heat pump might be in the wrong mode, or there could be issues with the compressor or coils.
  • Fix: Check the control panel to ensure it’s set to the correct mode. If the problem persists, it might be time to call in a professional to inspect the compressor and coils.


Noisy Operation:

  • Issue: The heat pump is making strange noises, from gurgling to high-pitched whining.
  • Possible Causes: Air in the system, a malfunctioning fan, or issues with the compressor.
  • Fix: If it’s a gurgling sound, it might just be the sound of refrigerant moving, which is normal. For other noises, it’s best to consult with a plumber or technician.


Error Codes on the Control Panel:

  • Issue: The control panel displays error codes.
  • Possible Causes: Various, depending on the specific error code.
  • Fix: Refer to the user manual for the meaning of the error code. Some issues might be simple to fix, while others may require professional intervention.


Reduced Efficiency:

  • Issue: The water heater is consuming more energy than usual.
  • Possible Causes: Dirty filters or coils, or the system might be in need of a general tune-up.
  • Fix: Clean or replace the filters and ensure the coils are clean. If the problem persists, a maintenance check by a professional might be in order.


Water Leaks:

  • Issue: Water is pooling around the base of the unit.
  • Possible Causes: A faulty valve, a leak in the tank, or issues with the connections.
  • Fix: Check the valves and connections for any visible issues. If the tank itself is leaking, it might be time for a replacement.


Unit Frequently Switches to Backup Mode:

  • Issue: The heat pump is often relying on its electric resistance heaters.
  • Possible Causes: The surrounding air might be too cold, or there could be issues with the heat pump itself.
  • Fix: Ensure the unit is installed in a location with adequate warmth. If it’s in a cold basement, consider relocating it. If the location isn’t the issue, a technician’s expertise might be needed.


Remember, while some fixes can be DIY, others might require the skills and knowledge of a professional. And when in doubt, it’s always better to err on the side of caution. After all, you wouldn’t want to turn a small issue into a big, watery mess!

Condensing Water Heaters
Condensing Water Heaters: How They Work

Condensing water heaters, often hailed as the next-gen solution for hot water needs, operate on a principle that’s as clever as it is efficient. But before you start imagining some high-tech wizardry, let’s break it down in simple terms.


  1. The Basic PrincipleTraditional water heaters burn fuel (usually natural gas) to heat water. During this process, gases are produced and vented out, carrying with them a significant amount of heat. It’s like letting steam out of a boiling pot; you’re losing energy. Condensing water heaters, on the other hand, capture some of this escaping heat and use it to preheat the incoming cold water. It’s like using the steam from your boiling pot to warm up the next batch of water you’re about to add.

  2. The Heat ExchangerThe magic happens in a component called the secondary heat exchanger. After the primary heating process, the exhaust gases, which are still quite hot, pass through this exchanger. As these gases cool down, they turn into a liquid (or condense, hence the name). The heat released during this condensation is transferred to the incoming cold water.

  3. Efficiency BoostBy harnessing this ‘waste’ heat, condensing water heaters can achieve efficiency levels of up to 98%. This means that almost all the energy from the burned fuel is used to heat your water. In contrast, traditional units might only be about 80% efficient.

  4. VentingBecause the exhaust gases are cooler (thanks to the heat they’ve transferred), PVC pipes can be used for venting, instead of the metal vents required for hotter exhausts from traditional heaters.

  5. Environmental BonusBesides being efficient, condensing water heaters produce fewer emissions. The process reduces the production of nitrogen oxides, which are harmful to both the environment and human health.


In essence, condensing water heaters are like the superheroes of the water heating world. They save the day (and your money) by capturing and using heat that would otherwise go to waste. And while they might not wear capes, their efficiency ratings are super enough to make a noticeable difference in your monthly bills.

Condensing Water Heaters: Key Components and Unique Attributes
  1. Primary and Secondary Heat Exchangers: The primary heat exchanger does the initial job of heating the water. But the real star is the secondary heat exchanger, which captures the residual heat from the exhaust gases, ensuring maximum efficiency.
  2. Condensate Collection System: As the name suggests, condensing water heaters produce condensation when the hot gases cool down. This system collects the resulting water and typically channels it to a floor drain or other suitable outlet. It’s essential to ensure this system is working correctly to prevent potential water damage.
  3. Modulating Gas Valve: Unlike traditional units that operate at a fixed gas flow rate, condensing heaters can adjust the rate based on the demand. This modulating valve ensures that the heater uses only as much fuel as necessary, optimizing efficiency.
  4. Venting System: Due to the cooler exhaust gases, condensing water heaters can use PVC pipes for venting, which are more affordable and easier to install than the metal vents required for traditional heaters.
  5. Digital Displays and Controls: Many modern condensing units come with digital displays that allow homeowners to monitor performance, adjust temperature settings, and even diagnose issues. It’s like having a mini-computer dedicated to your hot water needs.
  6. Sealed Combustion Chamber: This component ensures that the combustion process is entirely separated from your home’s indoor air. It draws air from outside for combustion and vents the exhaust gases out, ensuring safety and efficiency.


Unique Attributes:

  • High Efficiency: One of the standout features of condensing water heaters is their impressive efficiency, often reaching up to 98%. This means nearly all the energy from the burned fuel is used to heat water, translating to savings on energy bills.

  • Environmentally Friendly: By capturing and using more heat, these heaters produce fewer emissions, making them a greener choice.

  • Compact Design: Many condensing water heaters have a compact design, making them suitable for homes with limited space.

  • Longer Lifespan: Thanks to their advanced design and components, condensing water heaters often have a longer lifespan compared to traditional units, provided they’re well-maintained.


In the world of water heaters, condensing units are like the luxury cars – they come with advanced features, offer superior performance, and are designed for those who prioritize efficiency and long-term savings.

Condensing Water Heaters: Common Issues and Fixes

Blocked Condensate Drain:

  • Issue: The condensate produced can sometimes block the drain, leading to potential water damage or causing the unit to shut down.
  • Fix: Regularly check and clean the condensate drain and trap. If you notice water pooling, it’s a sign the drain might be blocked. Clear out any obstructions and consider installing a condensate neutralizer to balance the pH level of the water.


Faulty Ignition or Flame Failure:

  • Issue: The heater doesn’t start, or the flame goes out unexpectedly.
  • Fix: This could be due to a dirty flame sensor or issues with the ignition system. Cleaning the flame sensor might solve the problem. If not, it’s best to call in a professional to inspect the ignition system.


Venting Issues:

  • Issue: The PVC vent pipes can sometimes get blocked, leading to inefficient operation or safety concerns.
  • Fix: Regularly inspect the venting system for obstructions, especially during colder months when ice can block the vents. Ensure the vent pipes have a clear path and are appropriately pitched to prevent water from pooling.


Temperature Fluctuations:

  • Issue: The water temperature isn’t consistent, sometimes too hot or too cold.
  • Fix: This could be due to a malfunctioning mixing valve or issues with the modulating gas valve. Check the mixing valve for any signs of wear and tear and consider replacement if necessary. If the problem persists, a professional inspection of the gas valve might be needed.


Error Codes on Digital Display:

  • Issue: Modern condensing units often come with digital displays that show error codes when something’s amiss.
  • Fix: Refer to the user manual to understand the specific error code. Some issues might be simple fixes, like resetting the unit, while others might require professional attention.


Limescale Build-up:

  • Issue: In areas with hard water, limescale can accumulate in the heat exchanger, reducing efficiency.
  • Fix: Regularly descale the heat exchanger, especially if you live in a hard water area. Consider installing a water softener to reduce the mineral content in the water, prolonging the heater’s lifespan.


Noisy Operation:

  • Issue: Unusual noises like gurgling, banging, or whistling coming from the unit.
  • Fix: Noises can indicate various issues, from trapped air in the system to a malfunctioning component. It’s best to get a professional to diagnose and address the root cause.


Remember, while some fixes can be DIY, it’s always a good idea to consult with or hire a professional, especially for more complex issues. Regular maintenance and inspections can also go a long way in preventing these problems in the first place.


Water heaters, whether tankless, storage, heat pump, or condensing, play a pivotal role in ensuring our homes remain comfortable and functional. Each type has its unique features, benefits, and considerations, especially when it comes to installation and maintenance. As we’ve delved deep into the intricacies of these heaters, it’s evident that making the right choice and ensuring proper installation is paramount. In a city as dynamic as New York, adhering to local regulations and understanding the nuances of each water heater type can make all the difference in longevity, efficiency, and safety.


If you find yourself grappling with a water heater issue or contemplating the installation of a new unit, don’t navigate these waters alone. The team at CID is here to assist, ensuring you make informed decisions and receive top-notch service. Give us a call or book an appointment online. We’re just a click or call away, ready to bring warmth and efficiency to your home.

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